Reference Sites

Directories and Indexes

Academic Info A-Z/ An academic subject directory.

Ibiblio - The Public's Library and Digital Archive

Infomine/ Scholarly Internet Resource Collections

The Internet Public Library/ Multi-disciplinary resources.

Librarians' Index to the Internet/ Librarian-selected Resource

Library in the Sky / Interesting and useful educational Web sites for those involved in education

Library of Congress Home Page/ Our nations library’s website provides access to collections such as “American Memory”, which includes historic maps, photos, documents, audio and video; “Online Exhibitions” provides a virtual tour of galleries; “Global Gateway” is a multicultural resource; and Thomas provides current legislative information.

WWW Virtual Library/ The “oldest catalog of the web” was created by Tim Berners-Lee, who combined HTML with URLs and invented the World Wide Web. Contributors to this site are experts in their fields.

General Reference user-friendly library and reference information portal of exceptional quality and content.  "A+. -- --it's direct, well organized and practical." —Education World Researchers will find contemporary and classic reference works including encyclopedias, dictionaries, thesauri, quotations, English usage, religion, mythology, literary history, literature, anatomy, cooking, etiquette, parliamentary procedure, government, and numerous other non-fiction sources. Fiction sources are also included.

Bloomsbury Research Centre/ Over 17,000 entries on subjects including literature, art, myth, human thought, and quotations.

Infoplease/ Information Please has been providing authoritative answers to all kinds of factual questions since 1938. It is part of Pearson Education, the largest educational publisher in the world.

Library of Congress ClassificationESCC libraries classify books and other items according to the Library of Congress system of classification. This is a good way to learn shelf locations of various subjects and enhance your knowledge of an academic library’s call number system. (Remember, although some government publications are shelved according to LC classification, most are assigned SuDoc (Superintendent of Documents) call numbers.) Award-winning provider of current, quality, and credible websites.

Writers Free Reference/ An extensive list of reference sites, including many for writers.


Alabama Code/ The Alabama Administrative Code is a compilation of the rules of all state agencies covered by the Alabama Administrative Procedure Act.

Alabama Fact Finder/ Tables for Alabama, Alabama counties, cities and towns, and census tracts. The Official Website of the State of Alabama.

Alabama Government Directory/ State agencies and calendar, and city and county websites.

Alabama Law Sources Online/ Court decisions, Constitution, Legislation, Forms, Links, and Periodicals

The Alabama Legislature/ The Official Web Site of the Alabama Legislature /

Coffee County Community Resource Directory/ Included are Agencies, Non-Profit Organizations, Religious Groups, and others who serve Coffee County, Alabama.

Electronic Resources for Alabama State Publications/ This site links to additional sources not included on the Alabama Government Directory website.


The Old Farmer's Almanac/ Astronomy, weather, food, gardening, and more.

Atlases, Maps and Gazetteers

ERSys - Earth Resource System/ Find detailed information (including demographics, environmental factors, economic indicators, housing stats, media, schools, transportation, local contacts, etc.) for over 2600 US cities.

World Atlas/ provides a treasure of geographic information.

Multnomah County Library Maps / Not only maps (including rare ones), but everything about maps! How to use a compass, how far is it from one place to another, how to make a map, and more!

National Geographic MapMachine/ Find and view by population, climate, and much more. Access antique maps, country facts, or plan your next outdoor adventure with the site’s trail maps.

World Time Zone Map


Biography Search/ Search over 25,000 famous lives, past and present.

Congressional Biographical Directory/ Access terms of service, party affiliation(s) and biographical sketch.

InfoPlease Biography/ People in the news, recent deaths, artists, athletes, poets, writers, etc.

The TIME 100/ Leaders & revolutionaries, artists & entertainers, builders & titans, scientists & thinkers, heroes and icons, etc.

Women’s Biographies: Distinguished Women of Past and Present/ Biographies of well-known and not-so-well-known women who have contributed to our culture in the roles of writer, scientist, educators, political activists, and others.

Census and Population (See also: “Statistics, Mathematics, and Computing”)

Census Bureau Home Page/ Population, housing, economic, geographic data and more.

Economic Census/ Formerly called the Census of Business and produced by the  U.S. Bureau of the Census every 5 years, in years ending in 2 and 5, it profiles the US economy from the national to the local level.

Historical Census/ State and county census data.

Measuring America: The Decennial Censuses from 1790 to 2000

Population Reference Bureau/ U.S. and international population trends and their implications.

Creative Arts

AICT (Art Images for College Teaching)/ Access to images of art and architectural works in the public domain on a free-access, free-use basis for the educational community, and the public.

Artcyclopedia: The Fine Art Search Engine/ Index of major artists; includes brief biographical sketches and links to artists' works.

ArtLex Art Dictionary/ Criticism, history, aesthetics, and education for students, collectors, and instructors.

Artnet Artists/ Works and biographical information.

ARTnews Magazine ONLINE/ The online version of ARTnews.

Chronology of Animation/ Although the focus is animation created for artistic/entertainment purposes, included is coverage of animation created for education or advertising.

History of Illustration/ Access artists by movement and a chronology of illustrators.

The Joy of Shards/ A mosaics resource, including techniques and history.

Metropolitan Museum of Art Timeline of Art History/ A chronological, geographical, and thematic exploration of the history of art from around the world.

Smithsonian Institute Libraries' Drawing from Life/ Cartoons and caricatures from the American Art Portrait Gallery Library Collection.

Dictionaries & Language

Abbreviations and Acronyms of the U.S. Government

Acronym Finder/ This is the web's most comprehensive dictionary of acronyms, abbreviations, and initialisms.

American Heritage Dictionary/ Access a dictionary, thesaurus, and other useful references at

ESL Idiom Page/ This is also a helpful ESL tool.

KnowPlay?/ Find definitions, rhyming dictionary, thesaurus, acronyms, encyclopedia, atlas, CIA and art information.

Law.Com/ Find legal definitions.

Merriam-Webster OnLine/ Not only find words, but hear them as well.

Military Acronyms and Glossaries

Moneycentral Tax Glossary

Onelook - Translations/ Selected by PC World (March 2001) as one of the five best reference sites.

Phrase and Fable

Symbols/ A word and graphic index, which provides easy access to numerous symbols.

Translate with Babel Fish/ Translate a web page or a block of text.

Translations and Language UTLibrary/ This site addresses practically any dictionary and/or language need.

Webopedia/ Computer and Internet technology definitions.


All Area Codes/ This helpful site has several search/display options including reverse search.

Reverse Directory Phone Book

United States Postal Service - ZIP + 4 Lookup

Zip Codes and Country Codes of the World/ Even U.S. Vessels are included in this listing.


Digest of Education Statistics/ A compilation of statistical information covering the broad field of American education from pre-kindergarten through graduate school.

National Center for Education Statistics/ This is the main federal organization for education data.

U.S. Department of Education (ED) -- Research and Statistics


The Canadian Encyclopedia

The Catholic Encyclopedia

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2001-2004

The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

MEDLINEplus: Medical Encyclopedia/ In addition to over 4,000 articles about diseases, tests, symptoms, injuries, and surgeries, this site also contains an extensive library of medical photographs and illustrations.

Health & Medicine

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/ The principal agency in the United States for protecting the health and safety of all Americans and for providing essential human services, health statistics, and access to various topics.

Gray's Anatomy/ 1,247 vibrant engravings from the classic 1918 publication, as well as a subject index.

Healthfinder/ An award-winning Federal Web site for consumers, developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services together with other Federal agencies.

MEDLINEPLUS/ A goldmine of authoritative and current (updated daily) health information for health professionals and consumers from the world's largest medical library, the National Library of Medicine and other trusted sources. There are also such references as: a medical encyclopedia and a medical dictionary, health information in Spanish, extensive information on prescription and nonprescription drugs, health information from the media, and links to thousands of clinical trials.

National Cancer Institute/ Consumer-oriented information on a wide range of topics as well as comprehensive descriptions of research programs.

National Institute of Health/ NIH is the nation's medical research agency. The site includes an A-Z index of resources, clinical trials, health hotlines, drug information, and press releases. “Your Guide to Quackery, Health Fraud, and Intelligent Decisions”, headed by Stephen Barrett, M.D., a retired psychiatrist who has achieved national renown as an author, editor, and consumer advocate.

U.S. National Library of Medicine/ The world’s largest medical library.

History, Culture, Ethics, Religion and Philosophy

American Memory/ Access written and spoken words, sound recordings, still and moving images, prints, maps, and sheet music that document the American experience--a digital record of American history and creativity.

Bioethics Resources on the Web/ This website contains a collection of annotated web links to resources that provide background information and various positions on issues in bioethics.

Ethics Updates Homepage/ “Dedicated to promoting the thoughtful discussion of difficult moral issues."

Exploring Ancient World Cultures

Famous Trials/ Socrates to Bill Clinton.

History Channel

The History Place

Internet History Sourcebooks/ Collections of public domain and copy-permitted historical texts presented cleanly (without advertising or excessive layout) for educational use.

Lectures for Western Civilization I/ Professor Gerhard Rempel of Western New England College.

Lecture List for Western Civilization II/ Professor Gerhard Rempel of Western New England College.

National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism/ Dedicated to preventing terrorism or mitigating its effects.

Native Americans/ Find bibliographies, directories to pages of individual tribes, history and historical documents, periodicals and general links.

Religious Tolerance/ A multi-faith agency of five volunteers in the U.S. and Canada who follow five different religious beliefs (Agnosticism, Atheism, Christianity, Wicca, and Zen Buddhism).

Salem Witchcraft Trials A resource for people interested in dismantling bigotry and creating communities that value diversity promotes and supports anti-bias activism in every venue of life.

Top 20 American History/ A superb gateway to history links.

The WWW-VL History Index

Language, Literature, and Poetry

The Academy of American Poets/ Select by themes. Full e-text of selected poetry is available.

African American Women Writers of the 19th Century/ The Digital Schomburg provides access to the thought and creative abilities of black women as captured in books and pamphlets published prior to 1920.

American Authors/ Paul P. Reuben Ph.D. Department of English - California State University, Stanislaus

American and English Literature Online Books/ Links to online books in American literature, English literature, church history, history and government documents. Great Books Online/ Access full text of numerous classics.

The Cambridge History of English and American Literature: 1907-21/ Considered the most important work of literary history and criticism ever published, this source includes essay topics on poetry, fiction, drama and history, theology and political writing.

Critical Reading Guide/ An enlightening source for assistance in analyzing literature, especially poetry and fiction.

Great Books Online Index/ Access many great books of the western world and other greats as well.

IPL Literary Criticism/ Link to critical and biographical websites about authors and their works that can be browsed by author, by title, or by nationality and literary period.

Learn Spanish/ Free instruction included in this site.

Literary Resources

Literature, Arts, and Medicine Database

Poetry Portal: Overview of Internet Poetry World


Strunk's Elements of Style

Voice of the Shuttle/ This is a humanities-related resource created in 1994 by the U. California, Santa Barbara , English Department.


Alabama - 12th Circuit District Attorney/ The Office of the District Attorney for the 12th Judicial Circuit is comprised of three offices within Coffee and Pike Counties.

Copyright - U.S. Copyright Office/ Here you will find all key publications, including links to the copyright law, Congressional testimony and press releases; the latest regulations; a link to online copyright records cataloged since 1978; and much more.

Copyright Law in the Electronic Environment/ A great source for everyone, especially those in education.

Cyber-plagiarism/ A great resource for faculty and students, providing basic information on plagiarism, ways to avoid it, and numerous resources and references.

Fair Use Guidelines for Educational Multimedia/ In addition to the 1996 document, this site includes a link to an informative power point presentation, which educators will find useful.

Famous Trials/ Socrates to Bill Clinton.

FindLaw/ On May 6, 2005, the Webby Awards, the leading international honor for Web sites, named as the best Web site of 2005 in the category of law. It is the nation's leading provider of online legal information and solutions for the legal community, businesses and individuals.

FindLaw Cases and Codes

Global Legal Information Network/ A database of laws, regulations, judicial decisions, and other complementary legal sources contributed by governmental agencies and international organizations.

Internet Legal Information Directory/ For lawyers, researchers, webmasters, and students in their legal pursuits.

LegalEngine/ This resource is a legal gateway that summarizes the most important state and federal law related links in a comprehensive and easy to navigate index.

Legal Information Institute/ Named the "Best Law School Web Site" by in 1998, LII received honorable mention in the following categories: Best Legal Information Starting Point, Best Legal Research Site – Cases, and Best Legal Research Site – Laws.

Overview of Copyright and Distance Education/ The links guide to helpful resources addressing copyright issues related to the question of ownership of newly created work and fair use of existing materials.

Public Domain/ A helpful chart for quick reference.

Reproduction of Copyrighted Works by Educators and Librarians

Selected Historic Supreme Court Decisions/ A product of LII (Legal Information Institute).

U.S. Copyright Office/ The ethical issues of Copyright Law, Fair Use, Electronic Information and Multimedia, Citing Sources, Style Manuals, and Citing Web Information are addressed on this convenient site.

United States Patent and Trademark Office Home Page/ The only official site.

Myths, Hoaxes, and Urban Legends

HoaxBusters/ In addition to describing hoaxes and chain letters found on the Internet, learn how to recognize hoaxes, what to do about them, and the history of some hoaxes on the Internet.

McAfee Virus Hoaxes/ McAfee Security provides search capability for virus messages received via email.

Truth or Fiction/ Check out rumors, inspirational stories, virus warnings, humorous tales, pleas for help, urban legends, prayer requests and calls to action to see if they are truth or fiction.

Urban Legends and Folklore/’s answer to the problem of email deception. This is a tool for fighting computer security hysteria with a comprehensive A-Z list of popular virus hoaxes. In addition, persistent virus myths are tackled and misconceptions about real viruses are dispelled.


Armed Forces Magazines



    Air Force


Environmental Health Prospectives Online

National Geographic Society Publications Index


U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/ Conservation laws, policies, endangered species, biographies, history, fishing, hunting, birds, animal species, duck stamps, etc.

Invasive Species Initiative/ Resources designed to help all conservationists deal most effectively with invasive species. Included are: Fact sheets for gardeners, homeowners, outdoor recreationists, and public officials and best management practices for land managers.

National Space Science Data Center/ The permanent archive for NASA space science mission data. "Space science" means astronomy and astrophysics, solar and space plasma physics, and planetary and lunar science. A provider of public access and unified searching of the government’s vast stores of scientific and technical information, this site is an interagency initiative of 17 U.S. government science organizations within 12 Federal agencies. Each agency selects its best science information for Two major types of information are included — selected authoritative science Web sites and often hard-to-access scientific databases (specific content varies by database). This gateway to government science information allows searches across 30 databasesand more than 1,700 science Web sites with one query.

Smithsonian National Zoological Park/ Explore resources, programs, and join in celebrating, studying, and protecting species and their habitats.

State Health Facts Online/ Compare state and national statistics regarding, abortion, hospitals, insurance, nursing homes, physicians, women’s issues, etc. based on age, ethnicity, gender, and/or race.

World Health Organization/ The World Health Organization is the United Nation’s special agency for health. An A-Z list of topics provides access to related sites, links and fact sheets.

Statistics, Mathematics and Computing

National Agricultural Statistics Service/ Publications, charts, maps, statistics, census and other resources.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services/ The USCIS is responsible for the administration of immigration and naturalization functions and establishing immigration services policies and priorities. These functions include: adjudication of immigrant visa petitions, naturalization petitions, and asylum and refugee applications.

Bureau of Justice Statistics/ In addition to statistics, access information on criminals and victims, corrections, courts and sentencing, law enforcement, drugs and special topics.

Bureau of Labor Statistics/ The principal fact-finding agency for the Federal Government in the broad field of labor economics and statistics.

Bureau of Transportation Statistics/ Provides data, analysis, and reporting on various forms of transportation including airline service—rankings, delays and causes, and fuel consumption.

Calculators/ Include money, measurement, and time.

Economic Statistics/ Access current Federal economic indicators via links to information produced by a number of Federal agencies.

Energy Information Administration Home Page and FedStats/ Statistics, and A-Z topics list.

GeoHive/ Geopolitical data, statistics on the human population, Earth and more.

National Center for Health Statistics (CDC)/ Data from birth and death records, medical records, interview surveys, and through direct physical exams and laboratory testing.

United States Census 2000/ Statistics, data, special reports, and A-Z subject links.

Social Statistics/ Provides access to current Federal social statistics produced by Federal agencies.

Statistical Abstract of the U.S./ The National Data Book contains a collection of statistics on social and economic conditions in the United States . Selected international data are also included.

Statistical Resources on the Web/ The University of Michigan ’s Document Center provides easy access to government resources on numerous subjects.

Statistical Universe Guide/ Index to Federal, State, International and Business Statistics. http://www.personal.umich/edu/~graceyor/govdocs/statuniv.html

Willamette Statistical Sources/ Crime, Economy, Education, Environment, General, Health, International, Politics and Public Opinion, Population, Locating Additional Statistics

WHO Statistical Information System/ The WHO Statistical Information System is the guide to health and health-related epidemiological and statistical information available from the World Health Organization. http://www.who:int/gho/en/

The United States (See also: Statistics, Census and Population. Also, select the Government Documents link.)

Constitution of the United States/ The Original U.S. Constitution ,The Bill of Rights: The First 10 Amendments, and the remaining amendments to the Constitution.

Department of State/ The lead federal agency responsible for U.S. foreign affairs.

Emancipation Proclamation

50 States & Capitals

Gettysburg Address

Presidents - Speeches, etc.


State and Local Government

State and Local Government Finances

US Department of State - Home Page

Visas/ An official source of information about United States ( U.S. ) visa policy and procedures.

The World

Country Studies: Area Handbook Series/ Describes and analyzes the historical, social, economic, political, and national aspects of countries throughout the world.

Countries and Flags/ Multnomah County Library offers links to numerous links for country information.

Foreign Government Resources/ This government site links to other credible sources.

Government Gazettes Online/ Gazettes are useful not only to monitor the actions of the government, but also as primary source documentation in research.

Human Rights Reports 2000/ No country, our own included, can claim a perfect human rights record; nor should any seek exemption from international scrutiny.  Each nation must be accountable for the way it treats its citizens.  The purpose of these reports, therefore, is to provide to the best of our ability a comprehensive and accurate report on the human rights conditions in every country.

International Agencies and Information on the Web

Local Times Around the World

State Department Travel Warnings

The World Fact Book / Access unclassified CIA data including all of the nations of the world. It covers each country’s area, political climate, recent international disputes, natural resources, environment, population, inflation rate, GDP, agriculture, industries, defense expenditures, national holidays, literacy rate, religion, legal system, labor force, and much more, and includes a map for every entry.

World Flag Database/ Flag this site for flag info and links to more flag info.

World Time Zone Map

Writing Aids

Citing Government Information Sources

A Guide for Writing Research Papers Based on MLA Documentation

Millikin University's Preventing and Detecting Plagiarism/ Numerous links.

Plagiarism Court: You Be the Judge/ An interactive presentation of the plagiarism issue.

Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (OWL)/ Documenting Electronic Resources

TLT's Cut & Paste Plagiarism

University of Alberta Libraries Guide to Plagiarism and Cyber-plagiarism

The University of Memphis' Brief Guide to Citing Government Publications


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